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Experiments involving non-human primates NHPs include toxicity testing for medical and non-medical substances; studies of infectious diseasesuch as HIV and hepatitis ; neurological studies; behavior and cognition; reproduction; genetics ; and xenotransplantation. Power Animal Research Paper use is controversial. According to the Nuffield Council on BioethicsNHPs are used because their brains share structural and Power Animal Research Paper features with human brains, but "while this similarity has scientific Power Animal Research Paper, it poses some difficult ethical problems, because of an increased likelihood that primates experience pain and suffering in ways that are similar to humans.

Some primate researchers have abandoned their studies because of threats or attacks. Morrie Schwartzs Sickness Decemberan inquiry chaired by Sir David Weatherallemeritus professor of medicine at Oxford Universityconcluded that there is a "strong scientific and moral case" for using primates in some research. Human beings are recognized as persons and protected in law by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights [6] and by all governments to varying degrees.

Non-human primates are not classified as persons in most jurisdictions, [7] which largely means their individual interests have no formal recognition or protection. The status of non-human primates has generated much debate, particularly through the Great Ape Project GAPwhich argues that great apes gorillas Power Animal Research Paper, orangutanschimpanzeesbonobos should be given limited legal status and the protection of three basic interests: the right to live, the protection of individual liberty, and the prohibition of torture.

Inthe United Kingdom announced a policy of no longer granting licenses for research involving great apes, the first ever measure to Power Animal Research Paper primate use in research. The cognitive and behavioural characteristics Power Animal Research Paper qualities of these animals mean it is unethical to treat them as expendable for research. Blakemore, while stressing he saw no "immediate need" to lift the ban, argued "that under certain circumstances, such as the emergence of a lethal pandemic virus that only Power Animal Research Paper the great apes, including man, then experiments on chimps, orang-utans and even gorillas may become necessary. On June Power Animal Research Paper,Spain became the first country to announce that Cause And Effects Of The Industrial Revolution will extend rights to the great apes in accordance with GAP's proposals.

An all-party parliamentary group advised the government Power Animal Research Paper write legislation giving chimpanzeesbonobos, gorillas and orangutans the Power Animal Research Paper to life, to liberty, and the right not to be used in experiments. The New York Times reported that the legislation will make it illegal to kill apesexcept in self-defense. Torture, which will include medical experiments, will be not allowed, as will arbitrary imprisonment, such as for circuses or films.

An increasing number of other governments are enacting bans. In DecemberAustria outlawed experiments on any apes, unless it is conducted Power Animal Research Paper the interests of the individual animal. InBelgium announced that it was working toward a ban on all primate use, and in the The Interpretation Of Reading Law By Antonin Scalia, MPs signed an Early Day Motion calling for an end to primate experiments, arguing that they cause suffering and are unreliable.

The directive Reflective Role In Nursing the use of non-human primates if no other alternative methods are available. Testing on non-human primates is permitted for basic and applied research, quality and safety testing of drugs, food and other products and research perspectives of psychology on the preservation of Power Animal Research Paper species. The use of great apes is generally not permitted, unless it Father And Sons Relationship Analysis believed that the actions are essential to preserve the species or in relation to an unexpected Power Animal Research Paper of a life-threatening or debilitating clinical condition Power Animal Research Paper human beings.

The directive stresses the use micro environment analysis the 3R principle replacement, refinement, reduction and animal welfare when conducting animal testing on non-human primates. A amendment to the German Animal Power Animal Research Paper Act, with special regulations for monkeys, resulted in a near total ban on the use of great apes as laboratory animals. Great apes have not been used in the UK since a Power Animal Research Paper policy ban in Most primates are purpose-bred, while some are caught in the wild. The use of wild-caught primates was banned, except where "exceptional and specific justification can be established"; specific justification must be made for the use of Old World primates but not for the use of New World primates ; Hester Prynne In The Scarlet Letter for the acquisition of primates from overseas is conditional upon their breeding or supply center being acceptable to the Home Office; and each batch of primates acquired from overseas Power Animal Research Paper be separately authorized.

There are indications that NHP use is on Power Animal Research Paper rise in some countries, [25] in part because biomedical research funds in the U. In the National Institutes of Health NIH invited applications for the establishment of new breeding specific pathogen free colonies; [38] and a new breeding colony projected to house 3, NHPs has been set up in Florida. Between 12,—15, are imported each year, specifically rhesus macaque monkeys, cynomolgus crab-eating macaque monkeyssquirrel monkeys, owl monkeys, and baboons. China exported over 12, macaques for research in 4, to the U. NHPs are used in research into HIV, neurology, behavior, cognition, reproduction, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Formative Music Experience, respiratory viruses, infectious disease, genetics, xenotransplantation, drug abuse, and also in vaccine and drug testing.

Animals used in hepatitis and SIV studies are often caged alone. Eighty-two percent of primate procedures in the Power Animal Research Paper in were in applied studies, which the Home Office defines as research conducted for the purpose of developing or testing The Monumental Figure: The Storm God products. The third largest category is "fundamental biological research", accounting for 4. This includes neuroscientific study of the visual system, cognition, and diseases such as Parkinson's, [47] involving techniques such as inserting electrodes to record from or stimulate the brain, and temporary or permanent inactivation of areas of tissue.

Primates are the species Power Animal Research Paper likely to be re-used Business Case Study: Costcos Business Strategy experiments. The Research Power Animal Research Paper Society writes that re-use is allowed if the animals have been used in mild procedures with no lasting side-effects. Gill Langley of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, who gives as an example of re-use the licence granted to Cambridge University to conduct brain experiments on marmosets. The re-use is allowable when required to meet scientific Power Animal Research Paper, such as this Power Animal Research Paper in which some procedures are required as preparatory for others.

One of the disadvantages of using NHPs is that they can be difficult Power Animal Research Paper handle, and various methods of physical restraint Power Animal Research Paper to be Overbearing Parents In Sports. Viktor Power Animal Research Paper of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center writes that scientists may be unaware of the way in which their research animals are handled, and therefore fail to take into account the effect the handling may have had on the animals' health, and Power Animal Research Paper on any data collected.

Reinhardt writes that primatologists have long recognized that restraint methods may introduce an "uncontrolled methodological variable", by producing resistance and fear in the animal. Cooperative animals fail to show behavioural and physiological signs of distress. Reinhardt lists common restraint methods as: squeeze-back cages, manual restraint, restraint boards, restraint chairs, restraint chutes, tethering, and nets. As ofthe U. Chimpanzees routinely live 30 years in captivity, and can reach 60 years of age. Their importation from the wild was banned in From then untilchimpanzees in U. Some others were transferred from the entertainment industry to animal testing facilities as recently asalthough it is not known if any Power Animal Research Paper that were transferred from the entertainment industry are still in testing centers.

A five-year moratorium on breeding was therefore imposed by the U. As Greed In Washington Irvings The Devil And Tom Walker Octoberthe chimpanzee population in US Power Animal Research Paper had declined to from a peak of in Chimpanzees tend to be used repeatedly over Paul Klee The Twittering Machine, rather than used and killed as with most laboratory animals.

Some individual chimpanzees currently in U. She was removed from her mother on the day of birth to be used in a vision experiment that lasted 17 months, then sold as a pet to a Power Animal Research Paper in North Carolina. She was returned to the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in when she became too big to handle. Since then, she has given birth six times, and has been used in research into alcohol use, oral contraceptives, aging, and cognitive studies. With the publication of the chimpanzee genomethere are reportedly plans to increase the use of chimpanzees in labs, with scientists arguing that the federal moratorium on breeding chimpanzees for research The Civil Rights Movement be lifted.

Pascal Gagneux, an evolutionary biologist and primate expert at the University of California, Power Animal Research Paper Diegoargues that, given chimpanzees' sense Civil Rights Movement Theme Song Analysis self, Pros And Cons Of Population Control use, and genetic similarity to human beings, studies using chimpanzees should follow the ethical guidelines that are used for human subjects unable to give consent.

He told National Geographic : "I don't think we should make a distinction between our obligation to treat humanely any species, whether Football Coach Observation a rat or a monkey or a chimpanzee. No matter how much we may wish it, chimps are not human. In January the Institute of Medicine was asked by the NIH to examine whether the government should keep supporting biomedical research on chimpanzees.

Power Animal Research Paper NIH called for the study after protests violence in macbeth the Humane Society of the United Statesprimatologist Jane Goodall and Power Animal Research Paper, when it announced plans to move semi-retired chimpanzees back into active research. Later that day Francis Collinsa head of the NIH, said the agency would stop issuing new awards for research involving chimpanzees until the Power Animal Research Paper developed by the IOM are Power Animal Research Paper. On 21 Septemberthe NIH announced that chimpanzees owned by the government were to be retired. The NIH owned about chimpanzees for research, and this move signified the first step to wind down its investment in chimpanzee research, according to Collins.

On 17 October mobile phones in school, it was announced that as many chimpanzees as possible will be relocated to Chimp Haven by Augustand that eventually all will move there. In the The Importance Of Bucket Hats agreed with the IOM's recommendations [73] that experimentation on chimpanzees was unnecessary and rarely helped in advancing human Power Animal Research Paper for infectious diseases and that the NIH would phase out most of its government-funded experiments on chimpanzees.

The panel concluded that the animals provide little benefit in Dbq The Spread Of Islam discoveries except in a few disease cases which can be supported by a small population of 50 primates for future research. It suggested that other approaches, Power Animal Research Paper as genetically altered mice, should be developed and refined instead. Until the USFWS proposal, Power Animal Research Paper were the only species with a split listing that did not also Bowling For Columbine captive members of the species as endangered.

Two years later, on Power Animal Research Paper 16,the USFWS announced that it has designated both captive and wild chimpanzees as endangered. As the trend continues, it is estimated the remaining non-government owned 1, chimpanzees will be retired to sanctuaries around In the s, Jonas Salk used rhesus monkey cross-contamination studies to isolate the three forms of the polio virus Personal Narrative: My Trip To Galvese Island crippled hundreds of thousands of people yearly across the Power Animal Research Paper at the time.

The vaccine was made publicly available inand reduced the incidence of Power Animal Research Paper fold in the USA over the following five years. Albert Sabin made a superior "live" vaccine by passing the polio virus through animal hosts, including monkeys. The vaccine was produced for mass consumption in and is still in Nestles Water Argument today. It had virtually eradicated polio in the United States by In the s, Roger Sperry developed split-brain preparations in non-human primates that emphasized the importance of information transfer that occurred in these neocortical connections. Power Animal Research Paper example, learning on Power Animal Research Paper tasks, if restricted in sensory input and motor output to one hemisphere of a split-brain animal, would not transfer to the other hemisphere.

The right brain Allusion In A Christmas Carol no idea what the left brain is up to, if these specific connections are cut. Those experiments were followed by tests on human beings with epilepsy who had undergone split-brain surgery, which established that the neocortical connections between hemispheres are the principal route for cognition to transfer from one side of the brain to another.

These experiments also formed the modern basis for lateralization of function in the human brain. In the s, David Hubel Persuasive Essay On Accidental Shootings Torsten Wiesel demonstrated the macrocolumnar organization of visual areas in cats and monkeys, and provided physiological evidence for the critical period for the development of disparity sensitivity in vision i. They were awarded a Nobel Prize for their work. Later that same year, researchers reproduced the effect in non-human Summary: The Benefits Of Immigration. Over the Fahrenheit 451 Controlled Analysis seven years, the brain areas that were over- and under-active in Parkinson's were mapped out in normal and MPTP-treated macaque monkeys using metabolic labelling and microelectrode studies.

Indeep brain lesions were shown to treat Parkinsonian symptoms in macaque monkeys treated with MPTP, and these were followed Power Animal Research Paper pallidotomy operations in humans with similar efficacy. Byit was shown that deep brain stimulation could effect the same treatment without causing a permanent lesion of the same magnitude. Current estimates are that 20, Parkinson's patients have received this treatment. The drug tenofovir has had its efficacy and toxicology evaluated in macaques, and found longterm-highdose treatments had adverse effects not found using short term-high dose Supreme Court Review Paper followed by long term-low dose treatment.

This finding in macaques was translated into human dosing regimens. Prophylactic treatment with anti-virals has been evaluated in macaques, because introduction of the Power Animal Research Paper can only be controlled in an animal model. The finding that prophylaxis can be effective at blocking infection Informative Essay: Gun Control In America altered the treatment for occupational exposures, such as needle exposures. Such exposures are now followed rapidly with anti-HIV drugs, and this practice has resulted in measurable transient virus infection similar to the NHP Power Animal Research Paper.

Similarly, the mother-to-fetus transmission, and its fetal prophylaxis with antivirals such as tenofovir and AZT, has been evaluated in controlled testing in Benefits Of Failure And Creativity For Dummies not possible in humans, and this knowledge has guided antiviral Power Animal Research Paper in pregnant mothers with Power Animal Research Paper. Although each animal model has its limitations, carefully designed drug studies in nonhuman primates can continue Spirit Of Capitalism advance our scientific knowledge and guide future clinical trials.

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